Attitudinal effects of mere exposure zajonc 1968 pdf
By "mere exposure", researchers refer to a condition which "just makes the given stimulus accessible to the individual's perception" (Zajonc, 1968, p1) and the mere exposure effect is the enhancement of an attitude towards an object as a result of repeated exposures to that object. According to Zajonc (1968), frequent exposure to stimuli renters these stimuli more attractive in the eyes of the perceiver. MERE EXPOSURE 3 Mere Exposure Effects on Implicit Stimulus Evaluation: The Moderating Role of Evaluation Task, Number of Stimulus Presentations, and Memory for Presentation Frequency The mere exposure (ME) effect refers to the finding that people tend to prefer stimuli with which they have more experience (Zajonc, 1968). tasks, modalities, and stimuli (e.g., the classic mere-exposure effect; Zajonc, 1968).
Robert Zajonc first published his findings about the mere exposure effect in 1968. Studies dealing with the mere exposure effect (Zajonc, 1968) use an experimental procedure similar to the one utilized in an implicit-effects context. Initially, this research showed that repeated exposure to an attitude ob- ject led to more positive evaluations of that object. The latter finding suggests that repeated exposure effects are a function of both situational and individual factors.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 1-27.
Bornstein’s  meta-analysis of these experiments found that repeated exposure effects are robust. ZAJONC University of Michigan The hypothesis is offered that mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus object enhances his attitude toward it. brand choice is the mere exposure effect (for a review, see Grimes & Kitchen, 2007). The mere exposure effect is a foundational theory of social psychology, and is applied in advertising, studies of decision-making, and explanations of human interaction (Zajonc, 1968). able for exposure effects in cognitive judgments but not in affec-tive judgments. Mere exposure has been most famously stud-ied by Robert Zajonc and, since his initial studies, has been found to be a tremendously robust effect—one that has been demonstrated in a huge array of different con-texts.
The stimuli in the research, however, were words, Chinese characters, or pictures which might differ from cognitive processing of messages. Merely perceiving a stimulus repeatedly, such as a brand on a billboard one passes every day or a song that is played on the radio frequently, renders it more positive. Paper presented at the Symposium on Comparative Social Behavior, Smithsonian Institute, May 1969.
Zajonc, "The Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph Supplement, Vol. Petty & Cacioppo (1986) - Presented P’s with one of 2 messages arguing for establishing a new college course required for graduating Seniors (one strong one weak). The effects of similarity on perceived familiarity were almost entirely mediated by changes in attraction. The mere exposure effect, identified by Zajonc, showed that familiarity breeds liking. The hypothesis is offered that mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus object enhances his attitude toward it.
In the meanwhile Zajonc (1968) drew attention to the effects of mere exposure on human likes and dislikes. Using RET, we investigated the appreciation of different car designs varying in innovativeness and curvature. Affect deriving from 2 independent sources—repeated exposure and affective priming—was induced, and the combined effects were examined. The Mere Exposure Effect In the 1960’s Zajonc began investigating a memory phenomenon in which people demonstrate a preference for previously encountered items compared to new, unfamiliar items (Zajonc, 1968). The mere exposure effect In 1968 Zajonc reported a set of experiments in which the mere repeated exposure of ‘Chinese-like’ symbols was found to reliably predict their rated ‘goodness of meaning’.
This effect, well-established in experimental psychology (Bornstein, 1989), is the phenomenon that any sort of stimulus is preferred when it is repeatedly presented (Zajonc, 1968). In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle.The effect has been demonstrated with many kinds of things, including words, Chinese characters, paintings, pictures of faces, geometric figures, and sounds. The Mere Exposure Effect (69), adds more to these theories, simply arguing that the more an individual is exposed to a stimulus, the more favorable they perceive it. Methods Participants Seventy-four undergraduate approached in the main library of The Ohio State University volunteered to participate in this study. First, research on the effects of mere expo- sure (Harrison, 1977; Zajonc, 1968) is clearly relevant. While people may develop favorable attitudes towards products advertised in the context of unconditioned stimuli, these attitude shifts may be simply a function of mere exposure to the advertised product.
1968 by the American Psychological Association, Inc.
Zajonc conducted four experiments, each of which provided overwhelming to strong support for the hypothesis that mere repeated exposure of The mere exposure effect is well established at this point. Data relating to elections from 1977 to 2011 suggest the effect is significant in a statistical sense and in magnitude. Individual and group risk-taking in a two-choice situation Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. This question could be addressed by exploring the mere exposure effect to the disaster warnings.
ence condition and the mere presence condi-tion, but only in the audience condition did they have the status of spectators. M ost studies examining the effects of repetition on judgment report an enhancement in the individual’s affective response after repeated exposures to a stimu-lus. hypothesizes that mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus object enhances his attitude toward it. This bell-shaped attitudinal curve is the most commonly seen pattern in studies of repeated exposures to persuasive message. EXPLANATIONS OF THE MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT Affective Models Several models have been proposed to explain the mere exposure effect. This is the idea that we are attracted to, and help, those who share more of our genes, therefore those who are more similar (Hamilton,1968). In an article titled “Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure,” he described a series of experimental findings that fundamentally challenged the psychological understanding of preferences accepted at the time. Preferences for an item or person can be formed by “mere exposure.” This means that simply after repeated observation, we tend to experience a feeling of preference for repeated information , .Furthermore, Kunst-Wilson and Zajonc showed that people tend to prefer stimuli to which they have been repeatedly exposed subliminally.
This pattern of observations, framed as the exposure-attitude hypothesis and later the mere exposure effect, proposes that indirect experience, and even more so, direct experience with objects and stimuli reduces instinctive fear reactions to novel stimuli (Bornstein, 1989, Zajonc, 1968). Therefore, when sports fans are not exposed to women’s sports, they comprehend the lack of exposure as if they should not care about women’s sports (10, 15, 17). Face-name mediated learning and long-term retention: The role of images and imagery process. The Mere Exposure Effect in the Domain of Haptics The Mere Exposure Effect in the Domain of Haptics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(2), 1-27… Investigating the effect of familiarity on liking, a series of experiments was conducted which supported the theory that mere repeated exposure of an individual to a stimulus object enhances his att itude toward it. The most basic process of attitude formation is through mere exposure (Zajonc, 1968). Zajonc (1965) hypothesized that the “present other” does not need to engage in any sort of behavior at all to produce effects of an individual’s performance: The “mere” presence of the person is sufficient. The effects of mere exposure are quite automatic and independent of what we pay attention to in our day-to-day activities.
In a fascinating extension of the name letter effect, Pelham,Mirenberg,andJones(2002)foundthatinitials had predictive value for individuals’ career choices. Repeated exposure to a stimulus, for example, has been shown under certain condi-tions to lead to changes in expressed attitude toward the focal object. Studies on what has come to be known as the 'mere-exposure effect' or the familiarity principle have demonstrated a strong relationship between frequency of exposure and likeability. research of Zajonc (1968), this topic has been studied extensively in the context of the mere exposure effect, where repeated exposure to a previously novel stimulus causes an increase in positive affect toward that stimulus.
Thus, to test if processing ﬂuency enhances liking, it is useful to turn to manipulations other than mere exposure. Attitudinal effects of mere exposure // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Ambiguity and nonparticipation: the role of regulation.
Cummins and Lau (2003) stated that interactions with individuals with ID generally tend to promote anti-bias towards them, which is the basis of efforts for attitudinal change. The mere exposure effect has been documented as a robust a reliable phenomenon (Bornstein, 1989) and refers to the observation that repeated, unreinforced exposure to a stimulus increases affective evaluations of that stimulus (Zajonc, 1968). To assess implicit memory, we exploited the mere exposure effect (e.g., Zajonc, 19681), which refers to the increase in liking of melodies as a result of a prior exposure. Zajonc’ s mere exposure hypothesis that positive affect increases with repeated unrein-forced exposure (Zajonc, 1968), and thus familiarity, of a stimulus. In each of 4 studies, participants were first shown 72 Chinese ideographs in which the frequency of exposure was varied (0, 1, or 3). Zajonc’s (1968, 2001) mere-exposure effect, in that both Whites and minorities endorse the casting of primarily White actors in their movies. Exposure effects Investigating the inﬂuence of exposure on affective and evaluative responses has been a principal method of affective dynamics research. Zajonc authored prominent works that relied on or led to observations of the actions of nonhuman animals.